A hernia occurs when an organ squeezes through an opening in the muscle or tissue that holds it in place. For instance, the intestines may protrude through a weakened area in the abdominal wall.
Hernias occur mostly in the abdomen region, but they can also appear in the upper thigh, belly button, and groin areas. Most hernia conditions aren’t immediately life-threatening, but often they require surgery to prevent potentially dangerous complications.
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1. Umbilical Hernia
An umbilical hernia occurs at the navel when the abdominal muscles do not completely join. As a result, the baby’s intestine or other tissues bulge through this weak spot near the belly button or navel.
Babies born at low birth weight, women who have had multiple children, and adults who are overweight have higher chances of developing an umbilical hernia.
Symptoms: For babies, a soft bulge or swelling will appear at the navel of the baby. For adults, a bulge or swelling will appear near the navel, the bulge becomes dark and discoloured, or the bulge grows bigger in size till at least 1.25cm.
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2. Inguinal Hernia
An inguinal hernia is the most common type of hernia. It occurs when the abdominal wall weakens. This allows fatty or intestinal tissues to protrude through the weak area, and you may experience pain when you bend over, cough or carry a heavy object.
Symptoms include: A bulge, heavy or burning sensation in the groin.
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3. Incisional Hernia
An incisional hernia occurs at the site of a previous incision. It happens when the stitches fail to heal properly or comes apart with time.
While an incisional hernia can develop or get larger a few months or years after surgery, most cases happen within three to six months post-surgery, where your incision is the weakest.
Symptoms include: Lump and redness on surgical scar, fever and aching. In more severe cases, you may experience severe and persistent abdominal discomfort and pain, or even difficulty in passing gas or bowel movement due to strangulation of your intestines.
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4. Femoral Hernia
A femoral Hernia occurs in the femoral canal and is a painful lump which appears below the crease of your groin. It happens mostly in women and surgery is necessary to treat most cases due to the high risk of complications such as obstruction and strangulation.
Symptoms include: Bulge in the upper thigh just below the groin. Most cases of femoral hernias, however, do not cause symptoms. In more serious cases, sudden pain in the groin and/ or abdomen, nausea and/ or vomiting.
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